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Adapted from BBC–
Washing your hands- straightforward, or is it?
There’s plenty of evidence that washing one’s hands can reduce the spread of disease, only 5% of people wash their hands ‘properly’ ‘all the time’.
10% of 3000 people were witnessed leaving public toilets without washing their hands, and of those who did,33% didn’t use soap. While it is well established that we need to wash our hands properly, there are plenty of myths about what is proper.
Does the water need to be hot to get your hands clean?
In a survey of 500 adults, 69% believed that the temperature of the water has an impact on the effectiveness of hand-washing. Researchers found that water temperature made no statistically significant difference when other factors are controlled. Temperature still affects washing, though, because excessively cold or hot water lets people spend less time washing their hands than comfortable water temperature.
Is anti-bacterial hand wash better than soap?
A 2007 and a 2015 review both concluded that anti-bacterial hand washes did not reduce the number of bacteria remaining on people’s hands after washing any more than soap did, nor was it any better than soap. Triclosan, a main ingredient on most antibacterial hand soaps, May increase anti-bacterial resistance and that and has been banned in the US and in the European Union.
Do you need to dry your hands afterwards?
Letting new hands air-dry is fine as long as he did not contaminated hands before they try out. Durkan’s transfer to your hands more easily if they’re wet.
Hand dryer or hand towel?
There’s a lot of debate surrounding this one. Most of us don’t want for as long as 45 minutes needed for the hands to dry using hand dry. New were hand dryers take 10 seconds hand and our equivalent to paper towels.
Making toilets nicer also makes a difference. One study observe 3,000 people in the US, found that if the toilets were clean and well-kept, people were more likely to stop and wash their hands properly. When the sinks were dirty, they just wanted to get out of there.
Whichever way you choose to wash and dry your hands, do it for longer than you think.
Adapted from HarryPotterWikia
Harry Potter fans know very well that witchcraft can be dangerous.
Harry broke his ‘arm’ ( in reality, it was both-bone forearm fracture) during a Quidditch game and was ‘doctored’ by Professor Lockhart. The spell he used, Brackium Emendo, did not work as intended: instead of healing the bones, it made them disappear. Harry was then taken to the Hospital wing and treated with Skele-Gro, an awful tasting potion that grows missing bones.
I offer these few points to consider from an Orthopedic point of view:
This is a Sports injury! Should Quidditch players not wear protective ‘armor’?
Can this spell truly heal broken bones instantly? No cast! No Surgery! No down time! I should go spend sometime at Hogwarts.
Oops. The spell did not work after all. On top, it had the unintended consequence of missing bones: a Complication.
The ‘Doctor’ did not explain the treatment ( the spell itself), its risks ( missing bones), other alternatives ( let it heal with a cast), and did not get consent for treatment. In fact, Potter did not want him to cast the spell! In our world, it is an easy law suit!
The ‘credentials’ of the ‘doctor’ were suspicious to start with. Was he Witchcraft-Certified? even better for the law suit.
Skele-Gro was used to reverse the complication. Where can I get one? Would it work on stubborn fractures ( nonunions) and missing bone fragments? Yet another reason to visit Hogwarts.
Adapted from Science magazine
In 1996, an amateur archaeologist found a humerus bone north of Berlin. A flint arrowhead was embedded into the one end of the bone, ( funny it is nicknamed the surgical neck) prompting archaeologists to dig more. They found 130 people and five horses so far, and the bones were dated to about 1250 B.C.E., Europe’s Bronze Age. It is estimated that as much as 4000 warriors took part in the fighting- a large number for the bronze age which reflects significant advances in social organization to supports armies of this scale. “It could be the first evidence of a turning point in social organization and warfare in Europe,” one author said.
Recent research at UC Davis Health System looked into two questions about knuckle cracking: What causes the “crack” sound, and does it damage the hand? Ultrasound evaluations showed that the knuckle–cracking sound occurs when gas bubbles form in joints very quickly — faster than the blink of an eye. The study also suggests that the “crack” is caused by bubble forming, rather than bubble bursting.
Examinations by hand specialists found no problems in the joints of knuckle crackers, a finding that contradicts a previous study that suggested that knuckle cracking may cause joint swelling and weaken grip.
Author’s note: I personally used to crack my knuckles. My 8-years-old don does that now. I keep telling him not to do it, but- I guess- I do not have a good reason anymore…
A team of researchers decided wanted to find out what people thought of doctors how that compared to … Santa.
The researchers showed a film in which a narrator dressed as either Santa Claus or a doctor and told an identical story.
1- Santa Claus was perceived to be friendlier.
2- Both were equally reliable….
From NBC news
Scientists have recently discovered the oldest known fossil of a hand bone to resemble that of a modern human. They suggest it belonged to an unknown human relative, much taller and larger.
A key feature that distinguishes humans from all other species alive today is the ability to make and use complex tools. This capability depends not only on the brain,but also on the dexterity of human hands. Human hands allow a variety of grips and manipulation. This manipulation capability together with brain power allowed to tools, which in return helped develop intelligence.
For more details check out Nature Communications.
Adapted from NPR
Tim Anderson, a freelance chef who won the BBC’s MasterChef competition in 2011, donned a special pair of gloves and started cooking. Those were motion sensor gloves, and his moves were being recorded and coded- and the data was fed into the all new Robot Chef!
Anderson taught the robot how to prepare stir fry, sushi, steak, pasta as well as crab bisque. The plan is to teach the robot about 2000 dishes before releasing it to the public.
But don’t give away all your cookbooks just yet. The robot chef costs about $15,000.
Adapted from National Public Radio.
Scientists think they may have solved an old question about the cracking of knuckles: Why does it do that?
The crack apparently comes from a bubble forming in the fluid within the joint when the bones separate. It’s like a tiny air bag inflating. This theory about knuckle-cracking was first proposed in 1947 but challenged in the 1970s.
One guy, who is really good at cracking his knuckles volunteered to put his hand inside a special MRI scanner, and made a movie of the inside of his knuckles as they pulled on the end of each finger to make it crack. What they saw was clear: The cracking sound comes when a bubble forms between the bones of the knuckle joint — not when it collapses.
The discovery challenges the common misconception that knuckle-cracking causes arthritis.
Are you interested in Legends and Myths?
If so, check this out.
Bone infection can be deadly when not properly treated. Sue the Dinosaur may have learned that first hand.
Standing at a length of forty feet and 13 feet tall, it is estimated to have weighed more than 8.2 tons when alive. Sue was 28 years old when she died, making her the oldest T. rex known. During her life, this carnivore received several injuries. An injury to the right shoulder region of Sue resulted in a damaged shoulder blade, a torn tendon in the right arm, and three broken ribs.
If you look carefully at the left fibula (leg bone), you may notice that it looks different from the opposite one- twice as big and distorted.Scientist used to think it was broken, but recent CT scans showed no signs of fractures but likely as a result of bone infection– From Wikipedia.
Sue is on display at the Fields Museum in Chicago.