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The image of the human hand encoded in DNA!

From the BBC

Researches chose the image of a human hand, representing the first form of human painting, to be the first DNA encoded image in a living form!
They inserted DNA sequences that represent the image into the genome of bacteria. Later, They decoded the sequences  into an image using a computer algorism with at least 90% accuracy.

The original DNA-coded image and the decoded image

Gloves Through History

Adapted from: Fashion Times

Gloves played a substantial role in the conduct of human affairs and social interactions beyond keeping one’s hands warm and protected since ancient societies. Early Egyptian Pyramids contained hand covers without fingers. The tomb of Tutankhamen had the remains of decorated gloves.

Falconry, from De Arte Venandi cum Avibus, (On The Art of Hunting with Birds) , 1240 AC

Leather gloves were popular in the 1100s. Sturdy leather gloves were worn by laborers, falconers, and knights, whereas fashion gloves were crafted of fine leathers such as doeskin and lamb. Scented gloves were developed in the 1500s. Chicken skin gloves were worn at night to keep hands soft and white. Fabric gloves crafted from silk, satin, velvet, cotton, and linen were stylish in the 1500s.


Gloves had a variety of symbolic uses. The delivery of a glove to a monarch at an inauguration ceremony symbolized recognition of the new authority. Nobles received a glove when knighted.  Bishop status was granted by the delivery of a glove as well.  On the same token, Knights conveyed defiance or launched a challenge by casting down their war-gloves (gauntlet).

Gloves were used as messages of good will between sovereigns and dignitaries. They were sent to wish a person well, to congratulate them, or to console them. Gloves were also used for binding a bargain or as a bribe.

Gloves were a token of love.  They served a knight as an everlasting reminder of his love, inducing him to courage, loyalty and constancy while away. It also served as a charm against evil during conflict.

Today, gloves are practical articles that warm and protect our hands. People continue the tradition of wearing gloves at funerals, weddings, state functions, formal events, and the opera,  as gloves maintain their symbolic value and fashion statements.

Washing Your Hands

Adapted from BBC

Washing your hands- straightforward, or is it?

There’s plenty of evidence that washing one’s hands can reduce the spread of disease, only 5% of people wash their hands ‘properly’ ‘all the time’.

10% of 3000 people were witnessed leaving public toilets without washing their hands, and of those who did,33% didn’t use soap. While it is well established that we need to wash our hands properly, there are plenty of myths about what is proper.

Does the water need to be hot to get your hands clean?

In a survey of 500 adults, 69% believed that the temperature of the water has an impact on the effectiveness of hand-washing. Researchers found that water temperature made no statistically significant difference when other factors are controlled. Temperature still affects washing, though, because excessively cold or hot water lets people spend less time washing their hands than comfortable water temperature.

Is anti-bacterial hand wash better than soap?

A 2007 and a 2015 review both concluded that anti-bacterial hand washes  did not reduce the number of bacteria remaining on people’s hands after washing any more than soap did, nor was it any better than soap. Triclosan, a main ingredient on most antibacterial hand soaps, May increase anti-bacterial resistance and that and has been banned in the US and in the European Union.

Do you need to dry your hands afterwards?

Letting new hands air-dry is fine as long as he did not contaminated hands before they try out. Durkan’s transfer to your hands more easily if they’re wet.

Hand dryer or hand towel?

There’s a lot of debate surrounding this one. Most of us don’t want for as long as 45 minutes needed for the hands to dry using hand dry. New were hand dryers take 10 seconds hand and our equivalent to paper towels.

Making toilets nicer also makes a difference. One study observe 3,000 people in the US, found that if the toilets were clean and well-kept, people were more likely to stop and wash their hands properly. When the sinks were dirty, they just wanted to get out of there.

Whichever way you choose to wash and dry your hands, do it for longer than you think.

Paper Cuts Hurt so Much

Adapted from BBC

Paper, seemingly completely harmless, can be a weapon in disguise: paper cuts hurt way beyond expectations.

It’s all to do with nerve endings. There are a lot more pain receptors in your fingertips than almost anywhere else in your body, which explains the intense fiery quality of finger paper cuts that are worse that than deeper cuts on the arm or the thigh. They don’t slice that deep into your body, which is perhaps why it’s puzzling that they should hurt so much. But it’s exactly for this reason that paper cuts hurt bad. A deeper wound would result in bleeding. The blood would clot and a scab would develop protecting it from the environment. The shallow wound of a paper cut doesn’t get the same cover, leaving the injured nerve endings exposed and more irritated.

Having said that, nobody has ever proven that this is the case, but it is a reasonable hypothesis. Don’t you agree?

Broken Shoulder- 3 million years ago

Adapted from The Smithonian

Lucy, the famous 3 million years old hominin, has been a mistery for the last few years: how did she die? A group of orthopedic surgeons were asked to review recently obtained 3D CT scans of her skeletal remains and recognized something we are all too familiar with: fracture patterns of the shoulder and other bones that we see with high energy injuries in humans. Those were fractures that happened just before and led to her and not bone breakdown that happens to bone fossils.

No More Powdered Gloves

Adapted from Medscape

For several years, there has been a push to ban using powder in medical gloves. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recently unveiled a proposal to ban powdered surgeons’ gloves and the absorbable powder lubricating them, as well as powdered gloves for patient examinations. Both synthetic gloves and those manufactured from natural rubber latex are covered.

Professional groups such as the American College of Surgeons, the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology, and the American Nurses Association had already taken stands against powdered gloves. Government agencies such as the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention joined the chorus, as did the healthcare systems of Germany and the United Kingdom, as well as several healthcare organizations, such as Cleveland Clinic and Johns Hopkins, have either restricted or forbidden the use of these gloves.

Surgical gloves were first used in 1889, and soon, all sorts of lubricants were used to make them easier to don. Several studies has indicated respiratory complications.



Just Added- “The Curse of the MacCrimmons”

Are you interested in Legends and Myths?

If so, check this out.

Bone Infections are as old as the Dinosaurs

Sue the DInousaur

Bone infection can be deadly when not properly treated. Sue the Dinosaur may have learned that first hand.

Standing at a length of forty feet and 13 feet tall, it is estimated to have weighed more than 8.2 tons when alive. Sue was 28 years old when she died, making her the oldest T. rex known. During her life, this carnivore received several injuries. An injury to the right shoulder region of Sue resulted in a damaged shoulder blade, a torn tendon in the right arm, and three broken ribs.

If you look carefully at the left fibula (leg bone), you may notice that it looks different from the opposite one- twice as big and distorted.Scientist used to think it was broken, but recent CT scans showed no signs of fractures but likely as a result of bone infection– From Wikipedia.

Sue is on display at the Fields Museum in Chicago.

Decide to Drive

Did you know:

  • 421000 motor vehicle crash injuries were related to distracted driving in 2011?
  • Eating is related to three-fold increase in risk of crashing a vehicle?
  • Risk of crashing increases 700% when a teen driver reaches a phone?
  • Texting increased risk of crashing a motor vehicle by 2300%?

Napoleon’s Test

Napoleon’s test is one part of shoulder examination. It is meant to detect a tear of one of the rotator cuff tendons- the subscapularis. It was first described in the late 1990s and was called the belly-press test. It was later modified and named after Napoleon Ponaparte.

Napoleon Bonaparte (1769 – 1821) was a French military and political leader who rose to prominence during the  French Revolution. He was Emperor of the French from 1804 to 1814. Napoleon was most well known for the hand-in-waistcoat gesture because of the several portraits made by his artist. Theories state the gesture was done by Napoleon because of a stomach pain he had, but the pose was common in portraits during the 18th and 19th centuries. The pose originates from classical times when speaking with an arm outside one’s toga was considered rude. The Napoleon test starts by placing the hand on the belly, just like Napoleon’s portrait. The patient presses the abdomen with the hand. If the subscapularis is weak or torn, the patient won’t be able to bring the elbow in front of the body or hold it there.


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